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1NTRODXJCTOKY  ESSAY.                                  235
well wooded dells possess a uniformly hot climate, and closely
resemble similar spots on the Eastern Archipelago. Vaccinia
are plentiful, and there are many representatives of the Ma-
lay i-n flora, such as Myristica, Henslovia (Wallich), Polyosma,
CardwpteriS) Antidesma, Apostasia, Cyrtosia, and other Or-
chidese, Ternstrcemiacea, Sonerila, MediniUa, Erycibe, Cyrto-
ceras, and Tacca.
Higher up, temperate climate forms become common,
chiefly oaks (of which, including chesnuts, sixteen species
are known), Styrax, Magnolia, Garcinfa, Spharocarya, and
Lauracea. Acanthacea form a great part cf the underwood,
and balsams are very numerous. The open hill-sides are
covered with a luxuriant herbage, remarkably rich in species;
and at elevations above 5000 feet there is a remarkable pre-
dominance of northern forms, which are common on the Hi-
malaya at greater elevations. Most of the large Himalayan
genera are there represented. We find species of Ranunculus,
Anemone, Thalictrum, Delphinium, Corydalis, Geranium, Par-
nassia, Rubus, Potentilla, Sanauisorba, Astragalus, Saxifraga,
Astilbe, Umbellifer^ Valeriana, Senecio, Cirsium> Pedicularis,
Primida, Tofieldia, and Iris. Of many of the genera which
abound in the temperate Himalaya there are only single spe-
cies, of others there are several. Rhododendron is represented
by several species. One of these, the common R. arboreum,
has a very wide range in India: the others belong to the more
eastern forms of the genus, and, like the species of Java, de-
scend to very low elevations: of Rosa also, the only species is
the Peninsular and Chinese 7?. sempervirws.
We have elsewhere (page 105) alluded to the prevalence of
Chinese and Japan forms iu Eastern India; many of these are
Himalayan, but some arc q*ute peculiar to the Khasia. Of
these, Finns Sinensis, Nymph&a pygm&a, Aralia aculeata, Ha~
mamelis Chinensis, Nepenthes phyllamphora, and Stwringia
of Hooker (a curious genus of ferns) are all Chinese species,
which in India are almost confined to the Khasia. Reeve-
sia and Ilticiutft arc genera uonfiued, so far as iss liithcrto